Home / Gnōthi Seauton / Jejak Peradaban Manusia di Sungai Krayan

Jejak Peradaban Manusia di Sungai Krayan

| Penulis Dr. Yansen TP, M.Si. dan Masri Sareb Putra, M.A.

Peradaban Manusia Sungai Krayan mengacu kepada sebuah peradaban manusia di lembah Sungai Krayan yang kini berada di Kabupaten Nunukan, Kalimantan Utara. Penemuan benda-benda purbakala yang membuktikan peradaban itu terdapat di Desa Ba Binuang, Long Mutan, Long Padi, dan Tang Payeh di kecamatan Krayan Tengah.

Teknologi batu

Di kalangan penduduk asli Sungai Krayan, sudah secara turun-temurun diwariskan keterampilan menciptakan alat dari besi, yang master atau modelnya diturunkan dari nenek moyang pada zaman batu.

Contohnya belikung dan yae, peralatan pertukangan yang terbuat dari bahan besi oleh penduduk tepi Sungai Krayan sebagaimana ditemukan di desa Long Padi, sama dan sebangun bentuknya dengan yang dibuat nenek moyang mereka zaman dahulu kala.

Bentuk dan fungsinya sama, sehingga bisa dipastikan keahlian menciptakan alat ini diturunkan dari generasi ke generasi, bukan diimpor dari luar. Peradaban batu manusia penghuni Sungai Krayan ini ditemukan ketika penduduk menggarap sawah mereka di wilayah Long Padi.

Sistem pertanian organik yang terintegrasi dengan peternakan kerbau, serta berbagai situs bersejarah lainnya. Di Desa Long Mutan, terdapat situs batu yang dikenal sebagai batu “yung”. Penduduk setempat menyebut demikian, sebab batu yung bentuknya seperti lesung (dalam bahasa Lengilo’, yung berarti lesung). Terdapat 3 bongkah batu di tempat itu. Sebongkah batu yang sudah dipahat tinggi besar berukuran 60 x 120 cm, dua bongkah kecil berukuran 30 x 40 cm. Patut diduga bahwa batu yang menyerupai lesung empat persegi ini dahulu kala adalah tempat menampung air untuk berbagai kebutuhan rumah tangga.

Ada pula peninggalan sejarah budaya Pertanian yang cukup menarik disebut batu Tabau. Batu ini terdiri atas dua bagian: yang pertama sebagai alat penunjuk arah matahari, sedangkan yang kedua sebagai tempat duduk si penunggu. Setelah melihat dan memastikan arah matahari, si penunggu siap memberitakan kepada warga kapan waktunya untuk mulai menebas lahan dan kapan waktu yang tepat membakar serta menanam.

Batu Tabau merupakan teknologi pertanian untuk mengetahui siklus pertanian tradisional manusia penghuni Sungai Krayan. Dibangun berdasarkan sejumlah pengalaman dan ciptakarsa (pengetahuan) pada masa itu, sehingga bila ditepati siklus pertanian berdasarkan petunjuk arah matahari maka panenan atau usaha pertanian akan berhasil.

Peninggalan peradaban manusia berupa batu di sepanjang Sungai Krayan dapat pula ditemukan di kuburan tua pada kaki dan punggung bukit Batu Sicien (50 m), di hulu sungai Tuba, anak Sungai Krayan.

Di tempat ini, masih dapat ditemukan pecahan-pecahan guci, manik-manik, kalung, gelang, serta gigi dan tulang-tulang leluhur yang dahulu kala disemayamkan lebih dahulu pada celah-celah batu Sicien di bawah, untuk kemudian disimpan pada punggung batu yang jauh dari jangkauan binatang maupun manusia.

Sistem kultivasi padi

Sistem kultivasi padi –dengan memanfaatkan kerbau– khas manusia Sungai Krayan. Orang tua dan pelaku (petani) setempat usia 70-an ke atas, menyatakan bahwa teknik kultivasi padi, terutama padi Adan, ini sudah berlangsung sejak zaman semula jadi.

Sietem pertanian padi yang terintegrasi dengan peternakan kerbau ini, tidak diimpor dari mana pun, asli setempat. Contoh: orang kaya penghuni Sungai Krayan zaman dulu, ditakar dari jumlah kerbaunya, purut (mahar) dibilang dengan sekian ekor kerbau, dan denda adat dibayar dengan kerbau pula. Hanya di sini, dan di tempat ini, padi Krayan dapat tumbuh dan beraroma asli.

Syahdan, ada warga Malaysia dan Brunei sempat membawa bibit padi Adan dari Krayan dan menanamnya di tanah mereka. Namun, ternyata hasilnya berbeda, tidak seenak yang dibudidayakan di tanah Krayan. Manusia penghuni Sungai Krayan ini menerapkan teknik pertanian organik, yang diwarisi dari nenek moyang secara turun temurun. Jika diberi pupuk kimia, padi Adan malah hampa. Setidaknya, dikenal 3 varietas padi Adan: Padi adan putih, hitam dan merah. Dalam bahasa lokal pade adan buda, item, dan sia.

Pandai besi

Manusia penghuni aliran Sungai Krayan juga dikenal sebagai pandai besi (empu). Parang, mandau, tombak, serta alat-alat pertanian lainnya ditempa dan dibuat dengan sistem dan teknik tersendiri. Yakni dengan cara membakar arang, besi ditaruh di dalam bara, kemudian ditempa dan dibentuk sesuai dengan alat yang hendak dibuat. Salah seorang pandai besi saat ini yang mengaku keterampilannya diturunkan dari nenek moyang adalah Balang, penduduk desa Tang Payeh.

Daftar Pustaka

  • Balang, Mikel Paul (1999). Sejarah tentang Batu-batu Peninggalan Nenek Moyang yang Terdapat di Desa Long Mutan (Krayan Tengah). Monograf, tidak dipublikasikan.
  • Yansen TP, Dr., M.Si.; Ricky, Yakub Ganang (2018). Dayak Lundayeh Idi Lun Bawang. Jakarta: Lembaga Literasi Dayak.

***

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